Post traumatic dystrophy is now named as Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). A distinction can be made between CRPS type 1, where there is no nerve damage and CRPS type 2, where there is some damage of the nerves. CRPS occurs mostly in the arms and legs.
Phantom pain can be caused by an amputation or loss of a part of the body. The exact cause of phantom pain is not known, but a changing function in the brain plays an important part in this. Phantom pain occurs more often at a double amputation, amputation of the legs and as the amputation is performed at the beginning of the arm of the leg phantom pain has a bigger chance to occur. If the pain is worse before or after the amputation the chance of phantom pain increases. Phantom pain often starts within 14 days after the amputation. More than half of the patients experience pain within 24 hours after the amputation. However, some patients experience phantom pain some years after the amputation. Most phantom pain patients experience pain attacks, which varies from daily till monthly. Even pain free periods from over a year occur. The pain often takes a couple of seconds, minutes or hours. The pain can be characterized as shooting, stabbing, stinging, cramping, pinching or burning. In most cases the pain is experienced outside the missing body part. Phantom feelings are not the same painful feelings as occurs with phantom pain, such as the feeling of warmth, tingling sensations, feeling of extension of the fingers or toes as feelings or reduction of a body part. Approximately half of the patients experience stump pain. Painful spots (trigger points) in the stump are often present and can generate phantom feelings and phantom pain.
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